1602 to 1605

Rajah Sirongan allied with Sharif Laut Buisan or Kapitan Laut Buisan of the downstream Maguindanao community (assisted by his nephew and protégé, the rajah muda), aforementioned descendant of Sharif Kabungsuwan. Rajah and Sharif persisted with anti-Spanish resistance. Buisan was a man of many skills, as his name suggests: the Spanish word capitan refers to maritime prowess, as indeed lawut refers to open seas; and bwis refers to taxes. At this juncture, however, it was Sirongan who was dominant, having led an alliance of Maguindanao communities including Tamontaka in present-day Cotabato City, on the Illana Bay coastline of a region that will be known widely, also as Cotabato. This meant that Sirongan controlled both upstream and downstream areas of the Pulangi River, the two indigenous poles of emergent Muslim Maguindanao power. The alliance resulted in dramatic attacks on northern Palawan and then the Visayas, involving extraordinary numbers of fighters. Sirongan’s successful assaults furthermore led to alliances with Eastern Visayas datus.

September 8, 1605

Rajah Sirongan’s career at this point veered towards accommodation with the Spanish forces. He helped them fight the Portuguese in the Moluccas, a fight that Spain lost. Sirongan, the first Muslim leader to do so, signed a peace treaty in Buayan with the promise from the Spanish government that they would recognize his rule in Maguindanao. In return, he swore his allegiance to the King of Spain and promised to only wage war against the Spaniards when provoked and self-defense is necessary, to stop all raids in Spanish territory, to return all Christian captives and plundered church property, and to give assistance to the Spaniards if they need the aid of the Muslims. Though he refused Catholicism for himself, he allowed his people to convert to Christianity if they chose to do so. In the wake of this treaty, Sirongan’s power declined. He was defeated in 1606. Buisan, on the other hand, consolidated successes through naval prowess and diplomacy, and with the ascendance of his son Kudarat, assured his power base of increasing importance. Buisan set up base on the coastline, building friendly ties with Maranao and Iranun communities. This was to be the beginning of Cotabato downstream ascendance over upstream polity. Maguindanao was to become a coastal power under Kudarat.

1619 to 1671

Sharif Muhammad Dipatuan Kudarat, Buisan’s son, was the first individual of the Kabungsuwan descent line to call himself sultan, according to the pioneering historian Najeeb Saleeby.  He is retroactively thought, today, as having succeeded as the 7th Sultan of Maguindanao. His name is auspicious: Qudrat is Arabic for ‘power’. And his main kota, fort, at the coastal area where the Pulangi River opens to Illana Bay, has since been the Cotabato that is synonymous with Maguindanao power. Kudarat was indeed schooled in power: he spent time as a youth with the brothers Rajah Silongan and Datu Mangubal, training under them with the swords kampilan and kris, during the time when the brothers fought off the conquistador assaults of Captain Figueroa. The close interrelationship among Central Mindanao polities that accepted Islam, is highlighted by the marriage of Kudarat’s sister to one of the grandsons of Dimasangkay Adil (4th Sultan of Maguindanao), Sharif Matonding. There were other reasons, including diplomatic skills, that facilitated the consolidation of Maranao, Iranun, and Maguindanao communities under Kudarat’s leadership. However, it is particularly because of the marriage of Kudarat’s sister into Dimasangkay’s lineage that Maranao leaders, who forthwith styled themselves sultans, reckon their family link to Sharif Kabungsuwan. In addition, the long rule of Kudarat, until 1671, gave ample time for him to exercise noteworthy powers of statesmanship and military planning, not only over the full extent of the Pulangi River, but throughout Mindanao and Sulu.

1619 to 1621

While Sultan Kudarat did not exercise total hegemony over the vast territories that he actively engaged, his power and influence was widely felt. When hostilities broke out between his tau sa ilud and the Buayan tau sa laya, old contests for either dynastic ascendance or control of the Pulangi traffic once more came to surface. Kudarat as well as the Buayan leaders sought assistance from the Dutch (who remained neutral) and the Sultan in time decided to pillage Cebu for Spanish armaments by around 1621. By 1622, Kudarat exercised control over his Buayan competitors. Kudarat’s ascendant fame as a formidable southern leader was assured at this juncture. Furthermore, the solidification of social hierarchy was well underway within Kudarat’s Maguindanao society. As in the Sulu Archipelago, the existence of tarsilas facilitated the assignment of maratabat, rank, in a highly-gradated status system. With the rank of sultan as social apex, and the lines of descent from Sharif Kabungsuwan (and therefore ultimately the Prophet) the measure of exalted status, the Muslims of Central Philippines and Sulu deployed a ladder-like structure of society — that nevertheless allowed pre-Islamic baranganic social organization to persist.

1625 to 1626

Sultan Kudarat led numerous datus who in turn led barangays. He maintained overall leadership because he cultivated the capacity to protect these proxies of his power. For instance, he famously went to re-install the ousted datu of the island of Sarangani, an ally. The attack involved razing the datu’s capital, and the death and capture of the datu’s followers — who were then incorporated into the Maguindanao Sultanate and made into tribute payers. Tribute from these and the followers of other datus who allied with Kudarat were forest, sea, and agricultural material. The extent of his network indicates the extent of Islamization by this early part of the 17th century. The Dutch East India Company (VOC), which was busily moving around Southeast Asia and India, interacting with the leadership families of different parts of Mindanao, observed that Islamicized communities existed from “Sibugay to Sarangany and around to the Davao Gulf and the islands further south.” All of Western Mindanao and Sulu were interconnected by Muslim seafarers, diplomats, and warriors. The leaders were also interconnected by marriage. Sultan Kudarat himself was married to the daughter of Sulu Sultan Wasit, also known as Rajah Bungso, his contemporary. His sister-in-law was married to Rajah Balatamay, great-great grandson of Rajah Sirongan, and leader of the interior Buayan polity.

1628 to 1630

In response to raids mounted by the Sulu Sultan against various parts of the Visayas, the Spanish undertook punitive expeditions, often with little success. For example, the Juan Gallinato expedition of earlier in the 17th C, involving 200 Spaniards that set upon Sulu, failed after three months of fighting. In 1616, the Sulu seafarers set upon Camarines and the shipyards of Cavite; in 1625, Catbalogan, Samar. The Spanish retaliated in 1628 by sacking the town of Jolo and setting part of it on fire; and then retreating to Cebu. In 1629, the Sulu seafarers retaliated back by raiding Samar and Leyte. According to historian Najeeb Saleeby: “In 1630 an armada composed of 70 vessels and having 350 Spanish and 2,000 native soldiers, under Lorenzo de Olaso Ochotegui, arrived at Jolo. Olaso misdirected his forces and, advancing too near to the wall of the fort, was wounded in his side and fell. He was rescued by the officers who followed him, but the troops were demoralized and retired. The expedition, however, landed at various points on the coast and burned and pillaged small settlements.”

Early 1630s

The town of Dapitan, in what became Zamboanga del Norte, was a pre-Islamic and pre-Christian settlement whose Mindanao population was increased by migrants from Bohol and Cebu. These Visayan communities were involved in regional conflicts of some distance away, notably, the Portuguese adventurist movements in Ternate in the Moluccas. Dapitan was a Christian municipality of substantial size during the period of Sultan Kudarat’s renowned leadership. He could not abide this growing enclave of Christianity. He attacked Dapitan with manpower from Borneo, whom the record called “Sulugs.” He also assaulted parts of the Visayas, which, with the encouragement of Spanish authorities, provided additional population to Dapitan. Until this period in Philippine history, and indeed, until much later, a polity’s power depended on, to large extent, the manpower available to its leader, either by organic demographic increase due to centralization, by migration, or by additions through raids of other leaders’ communities.

1635 to 1637

Sultan Kudarat’s mid-career was taken up by defense against Spanish military incursions into and beyond the Maguindanao twin-poles of sa ilud and sa raya. It was indeed as a physical response to his power that the Spanish erected a bastion in Sambuangan, what is now Zamboanga City, in 1635. The “Moro Wars” that the Spanish fought under Governor-General Sebastián Hurtado de Corcuera, an experienced Spanish Governor-General from the colonization of Panama, were of a larger scale than in previous decades and centuries. It was necessary when faced with Sultan Kudarat, who had a large quantity of gunpowder and firearms. His kota batu, Cotabato, was strongly fortified. After considerable difficulty, Corcuera managed to overwhelm Sultan Kudarat’s fort. Corcuera’s men seized 8 bronze cannons, 27 lantaka or culverins, and 100 muskets.

The Society of Jesus (Jesuits) appealed to Governor Juan Cerezo de Salamanca to erect in Sambuangan an advance fort, in order to protect Christians and missionaries. Salamanca granted their request and sent Captain Juan de Chaves, who disembarked at Zamboanga on April 6, 1635. With 300 Spanish and 1,000 local soldiers, Captain Chaves began the construction of a stone fort based on a plan designed by a Jesuit missionary and engineer. The beneficial impact of the Zamboanga fort was clear to all, almost immediately. A fleet associated with Sultan Kudarat was returning from Cuyo, Mindoro, and the Kalamian Islands, was intercepted, and slaves freed.

Governor Corcuera, who had already overwhelmed the Lake Lanao area and promised its proselytization to the Jesuits, continued to be mindful of the growing power of Sultan Kudarat. He sent an expedition to this inland lake area, intending to destroy Sultan Kudarat’s forts, capture or kill him, and facilitate evangelization. On March 13, 1637, Kudarat’s fortress in Lamitan fell. The Spaniards burned the mosque. Sultan Kudarat, with 2,000 of his warriors, many Iranun, retreated to three forts in the nearby heights. Kudarat was wounded in the defense. But he forthwith got the sympathy of the Samal in Sambuwangan (Zamboanga) and the Iranun, and organized a new army.

1638

Sultan Kudarat visited his sons-in-law in Lanao, Balindong Bsar and Dianaton Naim, both of Butig. Gathering all the datu of Lanao and delivered a rousing battle-cry, he spoke:

“You men of the Lake, forgetting your ancient liberty, have submitted to the Castilians. Such submission is sheer stupidity. You cannot realize to what your surrender binds you. You are selling yourselves into slavery to toil for the benefit of these foreigners.

“Look at the regions that have already submitted to them. Note how abject is the misery to which their peoples are now reduced. Behold the condition of the Tagalogs and of the Bisayans whose chief men are trampled upon by the meanest Castilian. If you are of no better spirit than these, then you must expect similar treatment. You, like them, will be obliged to row in the galleys.

“Just as they do, you will have to toil at the shipbuilding and labor without ceasing on other public works. You can see for yourselves that you will experience the harshest treatment while thus employed.

“Be men. Let me aid you to resist. All the strength of my Sultanate, I promise you, shall be used in your defence.”

April 1639

Entrusted with conquering the Maranao people, Captain Francesco Atienza, the Alcalde Mayor of Caraga, with 50 Spaniards and 500 Caragans, reached Lanao Lake with six collapsible boats. General Pedro Almonte, Corcuera’s second, dispatched Major Pedro Fernandez del Rio with 70 Spaniards and 500 Visayans to join the forces of Atienza. The Spaniards arrived at a community of 2,000 families or 8,000 inhabitants. The datus of Lanao initially stalled the Spaniards, promising tribute and accepting the missionaries. Still, the Maranao could easily muster 6,000 warriors from among the four Lanao confederacies; but lacked firearms. Major del Rio’s group had to pass through the area of Dalawan, Gandamatu (in Macadar, now Lumbatan, Lanao del Sur) and Nanagen, territories under Sharif Matonding, who was married to Kudarat’s sister, Gayang. Matonding and his people resisted and engaged the Spanish reinforcements. Del Rio’s group made it to the shores of the lake and joined Atienza. In mid-April, Atienza and a number of his people returned to Bayug, fortified it with a stockade and sailed for Caraga.

October 1639

An additional force of 50 Spaniards and 500 Boholanos arrived under the command of Captain Pedro Bermudez de Castro. He had orders to build a fort in Marawi and start imposing Spanish sovereignty. The Maranaos, inspired by the Kudarat, took up arms against the newly-built fort. Armed only with traditional blades, they set the fort on fire. They captured three of the Spanish boats brought from Bayug. Atienza formed a relief expedition and saved the Spaniards. The Maranao warriors maintained the siege of the fort for 29 days before leaving. Uninclined to re-experience the starvation and horrors of siege warfare, the Spaniards proceeded to burn their own fort and retreated to Iligan.

1640

Atienza tried once more to conquer the Maranaos. For the second time, his people burned the fields and retired to the coast, but not without losing numbers to ambushes along the way. This attempt also failed. As Kudarat foretold, the Maranaos lost a year’s harvest but remained unconquered until the arrival of American Captain John Pershing and his troops 300 years later.

Balindong Bsar of the house of Masiu became the first Maranao chieftain enthroned as Sultan, with specific title as Sultan Diagaborolah. He was responsible for enforcing the teaching, law, and order of Islam in Lanao. He and seven Maranao datu (Dianaton Naim of Butig, Sultan Mardan of Macadar, Datu Burus of Pagayawan, Datu Ottowa of Ditsaan, Datu Acari of Ramain, Onbaor of Bansaya, Engki-Okoda of Minitepad, and Alanake of Baloi) agreed to create the four political entities of Lanao (pat a pangampong a Ranao): Unayan, Masiu, Bayabao and Baloi.

1642 to 1656

Sultan Kudarat nearly massacred a Spanish expedition coming to attack Simuay, his new capital. Spanish forts were soon abandoned as the Europeans retreated. However, he entered into a treaty with the Spanish Government for mutual aid and protection. It secured better commercial facilities and gave the Jesuits the chance of building a church in Kudarat’s capital. In 1649, this peace nearly broke when the latter made incursions in Kudarat’s territories and captured some of his vassals. Hasty explanations from the hurriedly-sent Spanish ambassador kept the tenuous peace. However, in 1655, relations with the Spanish once again deteriorated. Both the sa ilud and sa raya Maguindanao rejected Jesuit missionaries. There were mutual accusations concerning bad faith regarding the return of captives and artillery. Things came to a head when Baratamay, the new Rajah of Buayan, had two Jesuit priests killed. One of the priests was an ambassador who had previously insulted Baratamay by insisting that the Rajah convert to Catholicism.

1647 to the end of the 17th C

According to Saleeby: Sulu’s Sultan Bungsu, “had a very long reign marked with reverses and misfortunes.” He died before 1640, and was succeeded by Sultan Nasirud Din II and Sultan Salahud Din Karamat. The latter was known to the Spanish writers as Baktial, which was his Sulu name before the sultanate.

1656

Anticipating strong Spanish retaliation for the killing of Jesuits in Buayan, Sultan Kudarat wrote to his allies and vassals to take up arms against the Spaniards. He wrote to the Sultans of Sulu, Ternate, Brunei, and Makassar to support the struggle, which he proclaimed was jihad, a defense of Islam and the Shari’ah. But only a tit-for-tat struggle ensued. Once again, the Spaniards were expelled from the Pulangi waterways. In 1658, hostilities were renewed as Spanish administrators directed another campaign against Simuay. Kudarat succeeded in blocking the river at different places. The Zamboanga Governor personally went to Simuay and begged for a peace treaty with Sultan Kudarat. In this treaty, Kudarat was recognized as sovereign over the whole contiguous area from Sibugay River to Tagalook Bay (the present-day Davao Gulf), while Bukidnon and part of the present-day Cagayan de Oro were recognized as belonging under his sphere of political and military influence.

1658

The Sultan of Brunei gifted the Sultan of Sulu the northern and eastern portions of Borneo. It was compensation for Sulu assistance settling a civil war in Brunei. The Sultan of Brunei continued to loosely govern the west coast of Sabah. Many Brunei Malays migrated to this region during this period, although the migration has begun as early as the 15th C after the Brunei conquest of the territory. While the thalassocratic Brunei and Sulu sultanates controlled the western and eastern coasts of Sabah respectively, the interior region remained largely independent from either sultanate.

1662

The Kingdom of Yanping (present-day Tainan, Taiwan), ruled by Koxinga (Zheng Chenggong), raided several Philippine towns and demanded tribute from the Spanish colonial government. Koxinga sent his chief adviser, Italian friar Vittorio Riccio, to Manila, threatening to attack the city if his demands were not met. To defend Manila, Spain abandoned their forts in Ternate Island (then capital of Moluccas/Maluku or Spice Islands in present-day Indonesia) and Sambuwangan (Zamboanga City), despite Jesuit objections. This has become an important factor in Spain’s failure to conquer the Moros. This transpired during the reign of Karamat as Sulu Sultan, whose seafaring army became extremely active in raiding projects, taking advantage of the decline of Spain’s political power. The sultans who followed Karamat are, in the order of their succession, Shahabud Din, Mustafa Shafiʿud Din, Badarud Din I, Nasarud Din, and Alimud Din I, better known as Amirul Mu’minin (Ferdinand I of Sulu). The first three were brothers, the sons of Karamat, while the last two were the sons of Badarud Din.

1663 to 1671

With Spaniards abandoning Zamboanga, the Sama communities there became vassals of Sultan Kudarat. Most of the indigenous Catholic converts reverted back to Islam. A long time of peace between Kudarat and the Spaniards started as the latter kept distance. In 1671, after a reign of more than 50 years, Kudarat died of old age at around 90. He was laid to rest near a sea embankment in Simuay.

1678 to 1699

Sultan Barahaman, Sultan Kudarat’s grandson, was reported to have inherited the sultanate. His father, Sultan Tidulay, died some time before Kudarat. His sons referred to him as Muhammad Shah. He was Almo Sobat (Arabic, Al Mu-Thabbat) to William Dampier or the Almo al Lasab Brahaman to the Spaniards. He also used his grandfather’s name, Kudarat. On July 6, 1699, information was given to Dutch officials at Ternate Island (then capital of Moluccas/Maluku or Spice Islands in present-day Indonesia) saying that Barahaman passed away.

August 10, 1702

The Sulu Sultan, Shahab ud-Din, killed Sultan Kahar Ud-Din Kuda (sometimes known as Jamal ul- ‘Azam), Barahaman’s younger brother and successor. A pitched battle between the Sulu and Maguindanaoan sultanates erupted due to a misunderstanding, as well as bitterness due to a long-standing feud. Sultan Bayan Ul-Anwar succeeded Kuda.

1705

The Sultanate of Sulu totally gave up its rule over Palawan to Spain.

1710

Ul-Anwar’s younger brother, Sultan Muhammad Ja’far Sadiq Manamir, was forced to flee to Tamontaka (in present-day Cotabato City). He contested Ul-Anwar’s rule of the Sultanate. While his brother had power along the coast, Manamir held sway over the interior. His power was recognized in Tamontaka from about 1710 to his death in March 1733.

1718 to 1737

In the words of the historian Saleeby: “In 1718, Governor Bustamante reoccupied Zamboanga for the purpose of waging war against piracy. The citadel (Fuerza del Pilar) was rebuilt on an elaborate plan under the direction of the engineer, Juan Sicarra. Besides the usual barracks, storehouses, and arsenals, there were, within the walls, a church, a hospital, and quarters for the Pampangan soldiers. Sixty-one cannon were mounted upon the defenses. In 1725, a Chinese named Ki Kuan was sent to Manila to arrange for peace and returned with two Spanish commissioners, who made a treaty with the sultan of Sulu providing for trade between Manila and Jolo, the return or ransom of captives, and the ceding to Spain of the Island of Basilan. Notwithstanding this treaty, Moro raids continued either by toleration of the sultan and datus or at their instigation. In 1730, a brother of the sultan commanded an expedition of 31 vessels, which attacked the fort of Taytay and ravaged the coast of Palawan. Another expedition spent nearly a whole year cruising and destroying among the Bisayas. In retaliation, a large Spanish fleet united at Zamboanga and, under Ignacio de Irebri and Manuel del Rosal, invaded the shores of Sulu and ravaged and burned some settlements. At Bwal, they found the settlement well protected and extensively fortified, so they contented themselves with destroying some plantations and burning outlying houses. At Tapul, considerable damage was inflicted. A force of 600 disembarked, dispersed the Sulus, burned their settlements, destroyed many farms, the salt works, and many boats, and returned to Zamboanga. In 1732, similar raids were made and hostilities continued until 1737.”

1733 to 1748

Ul-Anwar and his son, Sultan Muhammad Tahir Ud-Din (called Dipatuan Malinug by the Spaniards), attacked Manamir’s forces in Tamontaka. During which, Tahir Ud-Din killed Manamir, his uncle. Ul-Anwar “abdicated” in favor of his son Tahir Ud-Din (Malinug). Tahir Ud-Din’s authority was, however, contested by two of his cousins, sons of Manamir, forcing him to retire to the interior where he died in Buayan around 1748. In 1747, Ul-Anwar passed away, presumably of old age. By 1748, with the death of Tahir Ud-Din, the struggle for the Sultanate ceased. One of his cousins who contested his position, Sultan Muhammad Khair Ud-Din (better known to Europeans as Pakir Maulana Kamsa), son of Manamir, emerged as the new chief of Maguindanao.

1754 to the end of the 18th C

The Maranao communities continued increasing their maritime strength and accelerated their attacks on the Spanish colonial forces. Leyte and the Calamianes bore part of the brunt of their attacks. About 900 Maranao and Iranun once infamously landed to raid for slaves in Albay and captured more than a hundred inhabitants. In Balayan, Batangas, it was recorded that they took everything. The Maranao and Iranun were thus responsible for discouraging the Visayas residents to join Spanish forces into their forays in Mindanao and Sulu. According to contemporary historian James Warren: “…by the mid-18th century, the hazards of living or sailing along the coasts of the Philippines were totally different – with well-organized Iranun raiders establishing blockades of up to 100 long ships to trap and destroy wealthy towns and friar estates. The biggest Iranun slave raids in Southeast Asia were systematically directed against the Philippine archipelago. In 1754 – 1755, raiding began in earnest, and for the next hundred years the coastal towns of southern Luzon, the Visayas and northwestern Mindanao were the scenes of persistent, well-organized slave raids, which were on a large scale and almost always launched from the sea.” On the other hand, the Muslims from Mindanao attacked the Visayans for providing warm bodies to Spanish garrisons. As a result, the Visayan communities lamented on the inability of the Spanish colonial government to defend them, despite yearly tribute to the Crown. The Spaniards devised a more elaborate and effective naval system of defense.

1737 to 1773

During the most unusual reign of Sulu Sultan Alimud Din I, a treaty between the Sultanate and the Spanish colonial government was signed. Piracy was actually suppressed under Alimud Din I, who was perceived as a man of peace and a reformer.

In late 1746, Alimud Din allowed the entry and work of Jesuit missionaries in Jolo. He also authorized a church to be built, as well as a fort for the protection of the missionaries. In return, he asked the Spanish colonial government for aid in building a sultanate navy (to further suppress piracy), which was granted.

However, in 1748, opposition leader Bantilan wounded Alimud Din. Alimud Din and his family, as well as the Jesuits, escaped Jolo and withdrew to Zamboanga. The deposed sultan asked for help from Spain to oppose Bantilan, who grew too powerful.

On January 2, 1749, Alimud Din arrived in Cavite and was received with flourish in Manila. On April 29, 1750, he was baptized and received the name of Ferdinand. Spanish authors often referred to him as “Don Fernando de Alimud Din I, Catholic Sultan of Joló.”

However, the Spanish government was never able to reinstate Alimud Din as Sultan of Sulu. In 1751, he wrote a letter in Moro language to the sultan of Mindanao, which Spain discovered was treasonous. In part, Alimud Din wrote: “In case the sultan or his chiefs and others should feel aggrieved at my writing this letter in this manner, that I do so under pressure, being under foreign dominion, and I am compelled to obey whatever they tell me to do, and I have to say what they tell me to say.”

Alimud Din remained in prison until 1763, when the English, after their conquest and occupation of Manila, reinstated him on the throne of Sulu. During the period of his imprisonment, his wife died and he re-married. The Sulus received their former sultan and Alimud Din resumed his former authority as Sultan of Sulu.

Either having had a change of heart or feeling convinced that it was not wise to fight the English, Bantilan withdrew from Jolo and moved to Kuta Gubang near Parang, where he died a few years later.

In the later days of his reign, Alimud Din was better known as Amirul Mu’minin (The Prince of the Faithful). Moro incursions increased. In November 1773, old and weak, Amirul Mu’minin abdicated the sultanate in favor of his son Israel.

1755

British Captain Thomas Forrest paid a visit to Maguindanao. Around this time, Sultan Muhammad Khair Ud-Din started relinquishing the seat of the Sultanate to his younger brother Pahar Ud-Din, also known as Datu Pongloc or Panglu, with the condition that his son, Kibad Sahriyal, would be the rajah muda. After Pahar Ud-Din’s death, he was known as Mupat Hidayat.

1757

The Iranuns and Maranaos accelerated their attacks on the Spaniards. There were frequent naval encounters between them and the Spaniards. In some of them, according to reports, thousands perished. In a span of four years, the Maranao raids for slaves in the Visayas reduced the number of tributes to the Spanish government by at least 100,000. For example, figures showed that the district of Panay paid 1,500 tributes in 1750, but by 1757 the district only paid 500 tributes. In Romblon, the number of tributes went down from 1,370 to 995; while in Kalibu (Capiz), tributes decreased from 1,164 to 549. Many coastal towns were totally destroyed and the Visayan population reduced considerably.

1759

Datu Aber Palawan and his people attacked the Spanish squadron in the northern part of Mindanao. He was martyred and buried in Radapan, Lanao (now Tarapan, Linamon, Lanao del Norte).

1761 to 1762

The British adventurer Alexander Dalrymple made a treaty of allegiance in 1761 with Sulu. In 1762, Dalrymple also made an allegiance agreement with the rulers of Tempasuk and Abai on the North Borneo coast.

1762

The Sultanate of Sulu gave up its rule over Basilan to Spain.

1780 and 1794

Sultan Kibad Sahriyal, son of Muhammad Khair Ud-Din, succeeded his uncle, Pahar Ud-Din and entered into peaceful negotiations with the Spaniards. Even before the death of his uncle the Sultan, he was already being addressed as “sultan.” He probably governed until 1805.