Like his father, Kibad Sahriyal, Sultan Kawasa Anwar Ud-Din entered into a peace treaty with the Spaniards. One of his seals carried the title of Iskandar Julkarnain. He possibly governed until 1830.

1837 and 1845

Kawasa Anwar Ud-Din’s nephew and Kibad Sahriyal’s grandson, Sultan Iskandar Qudratullah Muhammad Zamal Ul-Azam entered friendly treaties with the Spaniards. He was more popularly known as Sultan Untong and some Spanish documents carry his name as Iskandar Qudarat Pahar-ud-Din. He died either in 1853 and 1854.

1800 to 1850

The territory initially ceded to Sulu by Brunei, stretching south to Tapean Durian (now Tanjong Mangkalihat in Indonesia, although another source mentioned the southernmost boundary is at Dumaring), near the Straits of Macassar (now Kalimantan) had been effectively controlled by the Sultanate of Bulungan in Kalimantan. This reduced the boundary of Sulu to a cape named Batu Tinagat and Tawau River.

1848 and 1851

Spain launched attacks on Balangingi and Jolo respectively.

April 1851

A peace treaty was signed in which the Sulu Sultan could only regain its capital if Sulu and its dependencies became a part of the Philippine Islands under the sovereignty of Spain. There were different understandings of this treaty: the Spanish interpreted it as the Sultan accepting Spanish sovereignty over Sulu and Tawi-Tawi; the Sultan, however, took it as a friendly treaty amongst equals. These areas were only partially controlled by the Spanish and their power was limited to only military stations, garrisons, and pockets of civilian settlements. This lasted until they had to abandon the region as a consequence of their defeat in the Spanish–American War.

1854 to 1884

Sultan Muhammad Makakwa, grandson of Sultan Kawasa Anwar ud-Din, governed at this estimated period of time. He died in Nuling (in the site of the old settlement of Maguindanao).

January 1878

An agreement was signed between the Sultanate of Sulu and a British commercial syndicate of Alfred Dent and Baron de Overbeck, which stipulated that North Borneo (now Sabah, Malaysia) was either ceded or leased (depending on the translation used) to the British syndicate in return for payment of 5,000 Malayan Dollars per year.


Sultan Makakwa’s son, Sultan Mohammad Jalal Ud-Din Pablu (also known as Sultan Wata) died. His capital was at Banubu, just opposite the town of Cotabato across the Pulangi.

1888 to 1896

The Maguindanao sultanate was vacant during this estimated period of time. This was probably due to the fact that Datu Utto (Sultan Anwar ud-Din of Buayan) wanted his brother-in-law Datu Mamaku (a son of Sultan Qudratullah Untong) to become the Sultan. The Spaniards, however, wanted the sultanate to go to one of the Sibugay datus.


Spanish Governor-General Valeriano Weyler ordered his troops to land in Malabang (in Lanao) to conquer the Maranaos. He had 1,242 soldiers in two columns. The first column started from Malabang while the second column started from Iligan. This two-pronged attack on Maranao territory from the northern and western parts of Mindanao was reminiscent of the late 1630s campaign against the Maranaos.

1889 to 1891

In August 1889, after a few bloody clashes, Spaniards occupied Marawi, but still not without encountering strong resistance from the Maranaos, this time, led by Datu Amai Pakpak. On September 1891, Weyler terminated his campaign and failed to conquer the Maranaos.

May 15, 1892

Friar Pablo Pastell, S.J., drafted the blueprint for the temporal and spiritual conquest of the Sultanates in Philippines for the gradual reduction of the political and other powers of the Sultans, Datus, Shariffs, and Panditas, in such a way that they would all eventually become powerless. The Spaniards considered all the Moro communities as the primary obstacle in their conquest and colonization of the whole archipelago.

1892 to 1895

The datus of Lanao cooperated in the fortification of the section around Agus River for their mutual defense. And in February 1895, systematic Maranao attacks on the Spanish forts began.

On March 10, 1895, as a result of Maranao attacks on Spanish forts, Spaniards launched another expedition to attack and capture Marawi, once and for all. After the march to Marawi commenced, the Spaniards found themselves faced by strong resistance, again under the command of the Datu Akader Amai Pakpak. The Maranao fought bravely but lost Datu Akader Amai Papak, his son, 23 other datus, and 150 warriors. The Spaniards lost 194 men. About 3,000 Spanish troops, and countless volunteers from Zamboanga, Misamis, and Sibugay were involved. This did not stop the Maranaos from continuing to fight.

1896 to 1906

Sultan Mangigin took the seat of the Maguindanao Sultanate. He was a grandson of the famous Datu Dakula of Sibugay, who in turn, was a grandson of Kibad Sahriyal (the 16th Maguindanao Sultan). Around this time, Sultan Mangigin transferred his residence from Cotabato to Sibugay. In 1906, he married Rajah Putri, the widow of Datu Utto and sister of Datu Mamaku. In his decades as sultan, the Sultanate assumed a very ceremonial traditional character and continued to be the central institution for traditional and religious affairs of the Maguindanao and Iranun peoples thereafter. He died in 1926 and succeeded by Sultan Muhammad Hijaban Iskandar Mastura Kudarat.